An element found on the periodic table under
atomic number: 79
symbol: Au
atomic weight/atomic mass: 196.96655g
group name: Coinage metal
group: 11
period: 6
block: d-block
CAS Registry ID: 7440-57-5
Standard state: solid at 298 K
Colour: gold
Classification: Metallic
Availability: gold is available in many forms including wire, foil, and bars.

Gold is usually alloyed in jewellery to give it more strength, and the term carat describes the amount of gold present (24 carats is pure gold). It is estimated that all the gold in the world, so far refined, could be placed in a single cube 60 ft. on a side. It is metallic, with a yellow colour when in a mass, but when finely divided it may be black, ruby, or purple.

It is the most malleable and ductile metal; 1 ounce (28 g) of gold can be beaten out to 300 square feet. It is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is unaffected by air and most reagents.

The most common gold compounds are auric chloride (AuCl3) and chlorauric acid (HAuCl4). A mixture of one part nitric acid with three of hydrochloric acid is called aqua regia (because it dissolved gold, the King of Metals). It is unaffected by air and most reagents. It is found free in nature and associated with quartz, pyrite and other minerals. Two thirds of the world's supply comes from South Africa, and 2/3 of USA production is from South Dakota and Nevada. Gold is found in sea water, but no effective economic process has been designed (yet) to extract it from this source.

It would not normally be necessary to make gold in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially. The most romantic way to extract gold is by panning it out from a stream in some pleasant valley but most such sources are now depleted. Panning relies upon the density of gold (which is very high) being much greater than that of the sand and other particulates. It therefore settles to the bottom of the pan.

Today, more often than not, gold is extracted from ores. These ores often contain relatively little gold. Some of these processes cause environmental concern. The ore is crushed to a powder so as to expose the small gold particles. These are dissolved by treatment of the rock with cyanide solution in air. The result of this is a gold cyanide complex. Addition of zinc powder to the resulting solution precipitates out the gold.

4Au + 8NaCN + O2 + 2H2O 4NaAu(CN)2 + 4NaOH

2NaAu(CN)2 + Zn 2NaCN + Zn(CN)2 + Au (s)
by psolio June 10, 2004
Get a gold mug for your mother-in-law Beatrix.
A term used to describe when a piece of software (or music) is completed and written to a master disk (such as a CD-R or a DVD-R) ready to be shipped off for manufacturing. This term is believed to have originated due to the fact that the master CD-R disks used are sometimes a gold colour, and may actually contain 24 karat gold within the reflective layer of the disk. This includes the now discontinued but famous line of Kodak CD-R Gold Ultima media.
"According to Todd Hollenshead, the computer game DOOM 3 went gold on 14th of July, 2004."
by kid gib July 31, 2004
Get a gold mug for your mom Beatrix.
A last name posessed by a large number of jews.
"Hey next time you see Jacob Gold, don't forget to cut his horns off!"
by mysterychef November 16, 2006
Get a gold mug for your dad James.
Term used to describe an album being sold more then 100,000 times.
by Stuff March 27, 2005
Get a gold mug for your father Günter.
The element from which Jack Black's melodious voice is composed.
Kyle's fingers be silver, Jack's voice then be gold...
by sbs December 15, 2005
Get a gold mug for your fish Nathalie.