The retarded brother of mathematical analysis. Often hailed as difficult by dumb people who don't know what mathematics is.
Passing calculus is easy for any reasonably intelligent toddler.
A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thought and speech) and by negative symptoms (deficiencies in experiencing pleasure or motivation).
The disorder usually develops in late adolescence or early adulthood, the time when the brain fully matures.
Treatment includes antipsychotics, which usually have a large effect on symptoms, however compliance is usually poor due to their severe side effects. Cognitive function usually does not improve with treatment, and is a major source of disability.
Heritability is estimated to be about 80%. Genetic studies implicate general neurodevelopmental pathways, and especially sperm function, the immune system, DNA repair and synaptic development. Environmental factors include problems during pregnancy, advanced parental age, childhood adversity, an urban environment, cannabis use in childhood or adolescence and addiction to alcohol or stimulants.
Complications include suicide (about 5%), uncemployment (about 85%) and social isolation.
About 0.5% of people suffer from schizophrenia.
The mathematician John Nash had schizophrenia.
A neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social skills and restricted interests or repetitive behavior. Symptoms usually begin in early childhood.
Although most people with autism spectrum disorder (people "on the spectrum") are functionally impaired, some thrive occupationally or academically, especially people with Asperger's syndrome, who have no delays in language development and/or IQ.
A common misconception is that people on the spectrum lack empathy, the affective part of empathy seems to be unimpaired compared to people without the condition. This means that people on the spectrum often have the capacity for compassion and morality.
Complications include bullying, unemployment (prevalence of about 90%), suicide and self-harm.
Treatment is limited and the efficacy of specific interventions has been disputed.
The heritability of the condition is about 90%. Specific environmental risk factors known to contribute to the condition include autoimmunity. Disproven environmental factors include vaccines.
Although the condition causes significant suffering for many, some have disputed the characterization as a disorder altogether, especially because the restricted interests commonly seen in the condition can include occupationally or socially useful subjects like math or physics. People on the spectrum often hyperfocus on their area of interest.
Several historical figures like Einstein are claimed to have been on the spectrum, these claims are unproven.
Autism spectrum disorder has a prevalence of about 1%.