192 definitions by Abu Yahya

(ADJECTIVE) Portuguese-speaking; of or related to the Portuguese-speaking world
In order of population, the Lusophonic countries are Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Portugal, Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste, Macau S.A.R., and São Tomé e Príncipe.
by Abu Yahya May 17, 2010
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*noun*; in Keynesian economics, the rate at which aggregate consumption rises in response to a rise in national income.

For example, suppose the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is 0.95. If the national income is 100 billion dollars, and it rises 10%, then consumption will rise by 9.5 billion, and saving will rise by 0.5 billion.

If this theory is correct, then an expanding economy will suffer insufficient demand for its own output, and a recession will be inevitable.

This is why national governments respond to recessions with deficit spending: they are trying to counteract the MPC's effect on aggregate demand, and bring it in line with potential output.
Not only is the marginal propensity to consume weaker in a wealthy community, but, owing to its accumulation of capital being already larger, the opportunities for further investment are less attractive...

J.M. Keynes, *The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money* (1936), Ch.3
by Abu Yahya March 03, 2009
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(FINANCE) when somebody buys a corporation using borrowed money ("leverage"), with the expectation that the new owner will able to pay for it from the corporation's own profits.

Kohlberg Kravis and Roberts (KKR) developed the LBO back when Jerome Kohlberg, Jr. and Henry Kravis were still partners at Bear Stearns (1960's). The technique was refined by Michael Milken's methods of underwriting and trading junk bonds. At the same time, corporate raiders and takeover artists like T. Boone Pickens perfected greenmail as a way to make money from failed hostile takeovers.
In constant US dollars, the largest leveraged buyout deal in history was the KKR takeover of RJR Nabisbo for $31.1 billion (1989). In 2006, several deals of even larger size were planned or attempted, but adjusted for inflation, they were not as large.
by Abu Yahya September 03, 2010
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(US BUSINESS LAW) a type of business organization which is a cross between a partnership and a corporation. In a private partnership, all of the partners own all the assets in common and have unlimited liability; in a corporation, the firm assets are owned by a legal "person," and shareholders are liable only for the value of their stake (equity) in the firm.

Partnerships have higher risk for members, but their management can disclose a lot less and the taxes are lower. Limited/limited liability partnerships represent a compromise.

In a limited partnership, one or more of the partners has unlimited liability ("general partners") and the others have liability limited to their equity stake in the firm ("limited partners"). A limited partnership is indicated by the initials "LP" after the name, e.g. Apollo Management, LP.

In a limited liability partnership, all members have limited liability; specifically, the other partners of the LLP are shielded from torts for malpractice against the other partners, BUT they are legally responsible for financial claims against the whole organization. LLP liability varies somewhat by state law (several US states do not permit LLP's at all), and somewhat by the terms of the LLP agreement for that particular partnership.

Apologies to Urban Dictionary for an error in the definition of private equity fund and hedge fund: both types of fund are almost never LLP's; they are often limited partnerships (LP's).
The limited liability partnership is a popular form of business organization for lawyers and other professionals.
by Abu Yahya September 01, 2010
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(ECONOMICS) An emergency in which a financial or government institution cannot meet its current obligations in an acceptable form of payment. Different from insolvency, which is where that same institution cannot be realistically expected to EVER meet its obligations.

A good example of the difference is a run on a bank, especially in the days before deposit insurance. A perfectly honest, well-run bank could have all of its books in order, and be paying its depositors in legal tender, when suddenly a panic strikes and everyone wants their deposits all at once. This is necessarily impossible, and forces the bank's officers to default on their debts.

Often, the bank could resume operation later when it was established that it held performing assets greater than deposits. More recently, liquidity crises have been a problem suffered by countries facing capital flight
In 1997, several countries in East Asia were stricken with a liquidity crisis. In many cases, such as Malaysia, the panicked response had nothing whatever to do with fundamentals; it was sheer herd mentality.
by Abu Yahya May 04, 2010
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*noun*; the tendency for the public to want to hold income in cash relative to its willingness to hold it as interest-bearing savings (bonds).

The liquidity preference is analogous to a supply curve for lendable funds. If the price for lendable funds--that is to say, the interest rate--is high, then the amount be be large. If the interest rate is low, then the public will be more inclined to hoard income as cash.

Income held as cash is not spent on goods and services, so if the amount increases abruptly then there will be a recession. If it is held in some interest-bearing form, then it can be spent on fixed capital, thereby increasing output and employment.

During a recession, if the liquidity preference is high, a lot of money is going to be held as cash. One could free up some cash for job-creating investment by raising interest rates, but that would eradicate a lot of business opportunities. So monetary authorities monetize debt instead, creating a new supply of credit to replace the savings lost by falling interest rates.
...An individual’s liquidity preference is given by a schedule of the amounts of his resources, valued in terms of money or of wage-units, which he will wish to retain in the form of money....

John M. Keynes, *General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money* (1936), Ch.13
by Abu Yahya March 03, 2009
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(ECONOMICS) situation in which demand confidence in banks or borrowers is so low that monetary policy (i.e., lowering interest rates) has no positive impact on the economy. A characteristic of an economic depression.

When the economy contracts, or is in a recession, it is occasionally sufficient for the authorities to lower the discount rate or the federal funds rate. This lowers the cost of borrowing money, so more people do so, more stuff is bought, and the economy recovers. But in a depression, people will hoard cash (if they have any); if the interest rate is lowered, they still won't borrow, and the banks won't lend (because they want to restore their balance sheets).

When this happens, only fiscal policy has any chance of restoring economic growth.
In the fall of 2008, the failure of so many major banks caused a global liquidity trap. For two quarters, the world economy suffered a very severe contraction, and millions of people lost their jobs.
by Abu Yahya April 17, 2010
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