192 definitions by Abu Yahya

influenced by the economic theory of John M. Keynes (1883-1946); in particular, Keynes' book *The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money* (1936). The main point of Keynes' general theory (GT) was that market economies are not usually self-correcting, and occasionally require some sovereign intervention to prevent inflation or depression.

One of the policy prescriptions of the GT for curing recessions was to lower interest rates; another, more potent tool, was to deliberately run a fiscal deficit as a strategy for increasing aggregate demand. The GT was too late to have much of an impact on the Great Depression, but it did have a major impact on the economic policies of the Western Democracies from 1946 to the present.

During the period 1979 to 2001, Keynesianism was supposedly discredited, but national governments continued to use stimulus packages and monetary policy to resolve recessions. The policy has evolved, but remains the cornerstone of actually existing government behavior.

Attacks on Keynesianism: the most famous adversary of the GT was Friedrich von Hayek (1899-1992) of the London School of Economics, who insisted that an authentically free market would be self-correcting if it were only allowed to. Hayek's objections were ideological, but other economists such as John Muth argued that the GT expected people to make irrational, or unreasonable errors.

During the late 1970's, Keynesianism was eclipsed by the Rational Expectations Hypothesis; but REH failed to develop satisfactory policy proposals, while Neo-Keynesian economics evolved to address many of the original REH criticisms.
The treasury secretary wanted to respond to the inflationary spiral with a Keynesian strategy of tax increases, spending cuts, and interest rate hikes.
by Abu Yahya February 14, 2009
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In economics, a monetary policy in which the value of the local currency is determined by the foreign exchange markets, with some intervention by the government (or its allies) in the event of excessive or dangerous movements.

Usually the term is applied when the country ignores long term shifts in value, but intervenes directly to avoid crises.
Most of the nations in the world have neither a hard peg nor floating currency, but something in between--a dirty float, in which trade is under some restrictions.
by abu yahya July 10, 2008
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In economics, a policy in which the authorities insist on some permanent, precise guarantee of the value of the local currency to some other thing: a unit measure of gold, the US dollar, the euro, or the pound. Historically, the US dollar had a hard peg to gold from 1946 to 1971, while other currencies in the developed world had a hard peg to the US dollar. Since 1971, most of the world's money is in floating currency (whose relative value is set by the free market).
Nonetheless, advocates of hard pegs frequently downplay the ... difficulties of establishing greater nominal flexibility in fiscal spending and wages...
by abu yahya June 24, 2008
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(ECONOMICS) international bank created after World War 2 to coordinate currency stabilization. Main policy tool consists of lending money to central bank of countries facing a liquidity crisis.

In some cases, as when a member government is insolvent, the IMF will impose a structural adjustment program (SAP) requiring the government to jettison programs it has to serve the poor. For this reason, the IMF is often harshly criticized.
It is often said that the IMF makes economic crises worse by imposing the same austerity program everywhere, thereby further reducing a member state's ability to pay its sovereign debt.
by Abu Yahya May 04, 2010
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*noun*, efforts by the government to intentionally run a deficit in order to stimulate the economy during a recession. Loosely associated with Keynesian economics.

According to basic economic theory, recessions occur because there is a basic mismatch between aggregate demand and potential output. One approach for solving this is for the government to buy more goods and services than it has revenues to cover, thereby creating conditions in which effective demand is greater than the stock of goods currently in business inventory (given recessionary prices).

Under a stimulus, the jolt of extra money in circulation creates inflation, which has the effect of lowering real prices. Customers then respond to the {de facto} price reduction by buying more, which leads to more hiring, thence to more effective demand, thence to economic recovery.

Another reason fiscal policy stimulates the economy is that the private sector is not investing or consuming its own output. Increased taxes would simply reduce private consumption, so those cannot be increased; but spending is increased to fill the breach.
I think it is possible that fiscal policy will have even more 'oomph' in this situation," Christina Romer, who heads the Council of Economic Advisers, told an economics conference.

"When households and businesses are liquidity-constrained by reduced lending, any money put in their pockets is more likely to be spent," she said.

--Reuters, "White House's Romer: Stimulus may pack more punch" (3 March 2009)
by Abu Yahya March 03, 2009
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All of the parts of a productive system that contribute to marketable products; the productive elements in a particular economy. This includes the entire network of firms, regulatory bodies (like government), infrastructure (roads, telecommunications), and financial intermediaries (banks, thrifts).

In a global economy, there are many industrial systems. In fact, it's quite possible that a single town could have companies belonging to different industrial systems; e.g., a paper mill near a biotech research facility. Almost none of the productive systems share potential employees or potential markets; a recession for the biotech business could--and probably would--completely spare the paper mill. Moreover, the managers of the two businesses probably want opposite policies: the mill owners want low taxes and small government, while the biotech researchers want big spending on education and infrastructure.

Much confusion is caused by calling the industrial system the "economy." The industrial system is not the economy. The industrial system is an organic entity within a greater economy. Various policies may be beneficial for this or that industrial system, with an ambiguous effect (if any) on the economy.
The family model was incorporated into the industrial system with the agent (who was the chief manager) filling the father's role. The same model was also expressed in the hierarchical management structure... The overseer was the "father" of his workroom and was expected to treat the workers like his children.

(Tamara K. Hareven, *Family Time and Industrial Time* 1982, p.4)
by Abu Yahya February 24, 2010
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Organization founded in 1943 by Lewis H. Brown (the asbestos tycoon).

(Brown's company, Johns-Manville, was the largest asbestos manufacturer in the US during the 1930s, and was involved in a massive, 40-year cover-up of the severe health risks posed by asbestos.)

The American Enterprise Association (AEA) was created to design and promote policies that strengthen the political power of large corporations. In 1970, William Baroody, Sr. became its head and changed the name from "Association" to "Institute" (AEI); he had earlier learned how to (a) launder oversized campaign contributions from corporate boards, and (b) how to present the AEI as an earnest, high-minded, non-partisan research group (or "thinktank"). Baroody's sons, William Jr. and Michael, both became important Conservative Movement figures.

The AEI was, until the 1990's, mainly a very well-heeled devil's advocate against any progressive cause: it opposed regulating cigarettes, municipal water systems, environmental protections of all kinds, and the Endangered Species Act. Its budget grew enormously and it spawned subsidiary organizations such as NGOWatch, the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Project for a New American Century (PNAC), and many more besides.

During the period 1997-present, the AEI became much more intensively focused on armed confrontation. In the name of "security," especially "energy security," the AEI appears to have spent an increased share of its already-burgeoning budget on promoting war or sanctions against many countries with a majority Muslim population. It argued against democratic review of US foreign policy, and in favor of criminalizing dissent. Position papers ceased to have any research content at all, and became pure polemics.

After the 2008 elections, which provided a clear repudiation of AEI policies *en masse*, the AEI focused on promoting itself as the guardian of national security; it did this by arguing that torture and extraordinary renditions were vital to keeping the USA safe from foreign terrorists. This made the organization valuable to former administration officials subject to prosecution for violations of Hague Conventions & Geneva Conventions
In February 2007, *The Guardian* (UK) reported that the American Enterprise Institute was offering scientists and economists $10,000 each, "to undermine a major climate change report" from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). AEI asked for "articles that emphasise the shortcomings" of the IPCC report, which "is widely regarded as the most comprehensive review yet of climate change science."
by Abu Yahya May 29, 2009
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