A boson is a particle which behaves usually as a force-carrier. Each of the four fundamental forces (Strong Nuclear, Weak Nuclear, Electromagnetic, and Gravity) has one or more bosons (called gauge bosons) that transmit the respective forces. These gauge bosons are the quanta of the forces. Bosons, which have an integer spin, can occupy the same space unlike matter (feminons) which cannot. The Higgs Boson
which is being searched for by the Large Hadron Collider
is also a boson which gives particles mass; it does not belong with the four fundamental forces but is still a boson (it has an integer spin).
is the gauge boson for the gravitational force.
A Boson is the classification given to something which causes all the forces in the universe. There are six different kinds of bosons, with the Higgs Boson being the most famous The other five Bosons are the Z and W bosons, the graviton, the gluon, and the photon. All these Bosons have an integer spin and obey the Bose Einstein Statistics. Combinations of Fermions can also produce Bosons, for example Mesons obey the Bose Einstein Statistics and can, therefore, be described as Bosonic.
The Z and W Bosons:
The W+- and Z Bosons emit and exchange to produce the Weak Nuclear Force, the same nuclear force responsible for Radiation Poisoning. The Z boson holds no Electric Charge whereas the W+- Boson(s) hold the Electric Charge of either +1e or -1e. The Z and W Bosons are about a 95 times the mass of a proton making them as heavy as 94 hydrogen atoms. The W and Z Bosons also caused the rise of CERN as they were discovered by the research facility in its foundations.
The Photon is perhaps the oldest known Boson. Long described before the term was coined, the photon made its debut in Einstein's theory of light. The Photon is basically what founded Quantum theory from e=hf to e=pc. With an electric charge lower in magnitude than the plancks constant and a spin of one the Photon is truly a wonderful particle. It interacts via electromagnetic radiation and the force it relates to is electromagnetism.
The electromagentic field is caused by the Boson, Photon, and its quantum state is referred to as the Fuck State.