192 definitions by abu yahya

title of book by John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) outlining the general concept of Keynesian economics. The book was published in 1936.

*Context*
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Prior to the Great Depression, opinions about how to properly manage the economy were dominated by Neoclassical economics, which advocated little government intervention. In particular, unemployment was regarded as the consequence of workers failing to accept wages sufficiently low to permit full employment.

During the Great Depression, unemployment soared to 25% in the USA and Germany. Economics had no advice to give to leaders anxious to do something, and none of the neoclassical predictions were coming true. The government of the UK commissioned J.M. Keynes to lead a commission of top British economists in a general review of economic theory; their finding were summarized by Keynes in *The General Theory*.

*The Findings*
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The Cambridge team did not have access to statistics of national income and product accounting (NIPA). They did have some data on unemployment and prices, especially from the USA.

Keynes also identified several inherent logical problems with neoclassical economic theory about saving and investment. The theory said that all economic output of an economy would tend to be consumed; all saving would be invested; and all workers would be employed, *provided wages fell low enough*.


Keynes noted the economic mechanism by which investment occurs has little to do with the existing rate of saving; both are influenced by interest rates, but other forces come into play (e.g., liquidity preference for saving, business opportunities and user cost for investment). Hence, aggregate demand can drift very far out of alignment with output (or potential output).

Another finding was that employment rates actually did not respond in a predictable way to the fall in wages. The US economy suffered periods when a reduction in the wage level lead to increases in employment, despite the assumption that workers would have withdrawn from the labor market.

Finally, Keynes proposed the use of monetary policy and fiscal policy for regulating business cycles.
The *The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money* completely shook up the world of economic policy. Hereafter, governments took responsibility for economic conditions or they lost power.
by Abu Yahya March 03, 2009
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*noun*; generic term for economic thought developed from 1776 to 1930, which assumed the following basic concepts:
1. all types of goods, including factors of production, can be efficiently traded in markets;
2. given free markets, all goods available for purchase will, in fact, be purchased (including labor);
3. free markets include unlimited ability of prices of commodities to move upwards or downward to ensure the quantity supplied matches the quantity demanded.

*Subdivisions*
Adam Smith (1723-1790), auther of *The Wealth of Nations* (1776) is usually credited with compiling the critical ideas into a single theory.

Some historians regard the classical era as really beginning after 1817, with the work of David Ricardo (1772-1823) and Nassau Senior (1790-1864). Ricardo and David developed the concept of diminishing marginal utility to explain the idea of factor cost, and ultimately, market equilibrium.

After 1870, however, classical economics experienced the marginal revolution, in which the field adopted a much more systematic approach to addressing major research questions.

As a result of the Great Depression (1929-1939), classical economics generally faded from view until the late 1970's. At this time, the rational expectations hypothesis and real business cycle theory were refined in order to address problems that had crippled classical economics in the 1920's.

Textbooks addressing classical economic research since 1964 usually call it "New Classical economics." From 1982 to 2006, nearly all Nobel prizes in economics were awarded to New Classical economics such as
George Stigler, Ronald Coase, Robert Lucas Jr., Edward Prescott, and Edmund Phelps.
Proponents of classical economics are nearly always extremely conservative in their political views, and usually conclude that the sole legitimate role of the state is to defend property rights.
by Abu Yahya March 03, 2009
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A currency whose value is set by the currency markets; money whose exchange rate relative to other currencies is determined mainly or entirely by unrestricted trading in the currency. Most currencies are dirty float|dirty floats, which means that the government issuing them attempts to manage their traded value in some way; or else hard peg|hard pegs, in which the value is tied to something specific.


When a currency is floating, then its value may rise because the county is running a trade surplus, or it is running a capital account surplus. Floating currencies are not fiat money, although they are often confused for each other.
For most of the last half century, most money used around the world has been floating currency.
by abu yahya August 03, 2008
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(ECONOMICS) when a government has to restructure spending by massively cutting social programs, development programs, and subsidies on basic necessities. Often accompanied by taxes increases, especially on lower incomes (since the poor cannot escape tax hikes).
Usually we use the term "austerity program" when the government in question has to backtrack on its ideological commitments. An example of this is France, after June 1982. The Socialist government of Mitterrand had just implemented a raft of major new social welfare programs, and was promptly forced to cut everything back when the deficit ballooned.
by Abu Yahya May 04, 2010
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The phenomenon of people condemning vices they have indulged in themselves already, and since given up. Inspired by the _Confessions_ of Augustine (417 CE), in which Augustine describes his career path and then denouces the things he did to get to where he is.

WHY IT'S BAD

With SAS, the perpetrator has received the BENEFITS of a particular vice. It could consist of sleeping one's way to the top, or lying a lot, or getting divorced, or indulging a vice until it gets tiresome. At that point the perpetrator makes a big display out of quitting the vice and condemning it publicly. It's like climbing a ladder out of a ditch and then pulling the ladder up so others can't get out of the ditch; and to add insult to injury, the perpetrator ridicules the desire to use the ladder.

Like other forms of hypocrisy, it's destructive because it enforces stupid social codes. If the social codes were right all along, then the perpetrator should not get off the hook for violating them, but, in effect, he gets praise for having done so (and having "kicked the habit"). If the codes were wrong, then they should be confronted . And finally, it's bad because it creates a meritocracy of bullshit.
A good example of St Augustine's Syndrome is Doctor Laura Schlessinger, the evangelical talk radio host who climbed her way to the top, divorced, and then renounced feminism. Many putative sages are famous for having had, earlier in their lives, immense amounts of sex with numerous partners, only to renounce the ways of the flesh and denounced materialistic society.
by Abu Yahya March 21, 2010
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a number that is the sum of the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. It reflects the overall caliber of a country's prior economic management.

The term was coined by Arthur Okun and was inspired by the Phillips Curve.
During the 1980's and '90's, Austria had the lowest misery index in the world. Unemployment rates AND inflation rates were almost nil.
by Abu Yahya February 14, 2009
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in economics, the net income from assets that are owned by foreigners. The citizens of a country will own assets that are physically located overseas (for example, real estate in another country, shares of foreign stock, or even labor performed while an expatriate), and those assets earn income. At the same time, foreigners likewise earn income on assets located in ones' own country.

If domestically-owned assets located abroad earn more income than domestic assets owned by foreigners, then there will be a net flow of income from overseas. This is a collateral benefit to running a trade surplus, especially over several years.

An example might be the United Kingdom (UK) during the 19th century. Prior to the 1880's, the UK exported far more than it imported. With the foreign money, it bought assets in the economies of other countries, such as the USA, Continental Europe, and the future Commonwealth of Nations. These assets naturally earned a lot of income, as they accumulated over many decades. The income from these assets was so large that, after the 1880's, the UK ran a trade deficit but still had a current account surplus.


In the case of the UK, the current account surplus from the NFFI was still large enough that the UK could continue to buy foreign assets that earned income, even as its trade deficit grew during the early 20th century.
Gross national product (GNP) is gross domstic product (GDP) minus net foreign factor income (NFFI).
by Abu Yahya February 14, 2009
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