When there is a disconnect between story and gameplay in video games. An unnecessarily fancy sounding term mostly used by pseudo-intellectuals to whine about violence in Bioshock: Infinite. To them, the idea of so much violence in a game about a violent man in a violent/racist city is somehow a huge shocker.
Disconnect between gameplay and story happens all the time. There are countless examples of games where characters soak up bullets during gameplay but die from a single bullet in cut scenes. Yet somehow violence in Bioshock: Infinite is simultaneously the most frequently used and worst example of gameplay/story disconnect.
Did you read that article on the reputable game journalism website about violence and ludonarrative dissonance in Bioshock: Infinite? You know, the same journalist website that gave the fundamentally broken PS3 version of Skyrim a 10/10?