A German philosopher of the late nineteenth century. Fredrick Nietszche began his academic career in philology, the study of languages and linguistic systems. He became an admirer of Wagner, with whom he later fell out. Following the publication of 'The Geneology of Morals', his main concern was to reaffirm life in 'the twilight of the idols'.
His phrase 'god is dead, we are all his murderers' was not an attack against religion as such, but against nihilism which believed in nothing on the one hand, and on the churches and christians who had sapped the true value and meaning out of life and religion on the other. Thus he claimed the churches were 'sepulchres', and the nihilists he urged to 'keep holy your highest hope'. That hope he grounded in the act of creation, and affirmed in the idea of 'eternal recurrence' - the ultimate affirmation of life.
These ideas are best outlined in 'Thus Spoke Zarathustra', in particular the sections 'The Tree on the Mountainside' and 'On the Three Metamorphoses'. In this last section he outlines how the human soul begins as 'a camel' wieghted down by loyalty to the old gods, then he must become a 'lion' and denounce them before becoming 'a child' who creates a new value and new meaning for his life.
Nietzsche owed much to Eastern, particularly Buddhist metaphysics, as well, I suspect, as being influenced by William Blake and Wagner. His is the same kind of reaffirming existential mission. His influence on the 20th C. existentialists also mark him out as one of the early 'fathers' of 'postmodernism'.
'But by my love and hope I beseech you; Do not throw away the hero in your soul! Hold holy your highest hope!'
Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
Fascism is a form of totalitarianism in that it holds the State to be the highest value, to which all individuals must be completely loyal. Yet it is distinguishable from other forms of totalitarianism in its exultation of war and violence as a means of envigorating the state and the people. Its focus on nationalism means fascism may vary in detail from country to country, but always it brings war - against others and against the individual.
Mussolini's Italy invented it. It is derived from the Roman 'fasces', the bundle of sticks around an axe which represented the Roman Imperium and interestingly also adorns the United States Congress!
A dear old lady in a big hat. Despite there being a large number of female monarchs, 'The Queen' is most familiar to most of us as 'Her Majesty by the Grace of God of Australia, her other Realms and Territories, Queen, Head of the Commonwealth etc.' She is also Queen of Canada, New Zealand and Great Britain.
"We did but see her passing by, and I couldn't see her at all due to her big hat!"
"God Save The Queen!"
"Oh my God! Look, it's The Queen!"
The most famous Queen Elizabeth is Elizabeth I of England, the last Tudor monarch. Her modern day namesake is Elizabeth II who ascended the throne of Great Britain, the British Empire and the Commonwealth on 6 February 1952.
There was also an ocean liner, 'Queen Elizabeth", but Cunard;s "QE2" is not named after the present Queen as some may think. Rather, it is the 'second' version of the first ship, which is, let's face it, named after the first Gloriana herself.
Elizabeth I was arguably the greatest monarch in English history, a capable hunter, brilliant orator and intellectual (she translated ancient latin and greek texts in her spare time). Her greatest achievement was staying in power for over forty years despite the plots of Mary, Queen of Scots, the Pope, the Spanish and her own lovers. She also commissioned the great explorer and privateer Sir Francis Drake and was a patron of Shakespeare. Her most famous speeches were delivered at Tilbury where she rallied her troops against the Spanish Armada, and in Parliament where she declared in her 'Golden Speech' that the 'greatest prize' of her reign had been to rule 'with your loves'. Elizabeth I also attempted to settle the religious question by declaring she did not 'seek a window into mens souls'.
Ironically, Elizabeth II has witnessed the end of that same empire, but has also proved enduringly popular with her subjects, as witness by her Jubilee celebrations, though being in now way an orator or wit along Elizabethan lines. Her reign was heralded in the1950s as 'a second Elizabethan Age', but notice how quickly that one died out.
"God Save Queen Elizabeth!"