Comes from the movie "Treasure of the Sierra Madre", 1948, starring Humphrey Bogart. Bogie and two other Norteamericanos are looking for gold in Mexico. Banditos come to the campsite and identify themselves as Federales.
"If you guys are the Federales, then where are your badges?"
"¿Badges? ¡We don't need no stinking badges!"
Also a line in a Pink Floyd song:
We don't need no......stinking badges.