A fatwa is any religious decision made by mufti (Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law).
The most infamous fatwa is the one by Ruhollah Khomeini sentencing Salman Rushdie (Muslim essayist) to death - that's why most Western people see fatwa just as a death sentence, although it's more than that.
1. Mufti issued a fatwa concerning fast observance during Ramadan.
2. Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for Rushdie's death.