An medical inspection in the military where soldiers are checked for sexually transmitted disease.
I failed the short arm inspection because I had a leaking faucet.
Examination of the male genitals, especially the penis to verify good hygiene and absence of disease. Years ago, VD (veneral disease) was spreading among army personnel so soldiers had to submit to these exams to insure that there were no unusual discharges from the penis and (especially uncircumsized) soldiers were clean. Since the rifle was nicknamed the long arm, the penis was named the short arm which is the origin of the name.
The sarge woke us up at 2 AM last night to perform short arm inspections.
The part of a medical inspection when the doctor asks the (male) inspectee to cough.
Get the platoon lined up in front of the medical officer for short arm inspection.