The groundbreaking idea of what would have been the case if the opposite of the actual situation had occurred.
DOCES: According to this study by William Easterly, there is no conclusive evidence that foreign aid caused growth in Africa.
BRYAN: But Doces, according to Zander's Theory of the Counterfactual, you have to take into account the fact that Africa could actually be in a worse position if they did not receive any aid to begin with.
DOCES: Bryan, you are by far my brightest student. I'm hungry, lets get some Domino's!