Form of math derived by Isaac Newton consisting mainly of derivatives and integrals. Allows one to get the slope of the tangent line of a curve or the area under the curve, respectively. Extremely useful in almost all areas of science. Newton wrote it in two weeks, and often takes us about a year to learn.
From calculus, we know that the derivative of position is velocity, and the velocity is acceleration. A third derivative, the jerk (what you feel when a car suddenly stops), can be found, but is not seen as often. These relationships are crucial to the physical sciences.