This is a Russian style cap with ear flaps that can be tied up to the crown of the cap, which is often made of fur, or tied at the chin to protect the ears from the cold.
Though ushankas are a distinctly Russian hat, indeed, the stereotypical Russian is seen to wear one, the wearing of fur caps of similar design is common throughout China, North Korea, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is also worn widely in North America and Canada.
It is not considered masculine among Russian men to wear the ear flaps down, though a stereotypical dustman is usually portrayed wearing his ushanka with flaps untied, one pointing down and one up.
In the English-speaking world, it is sometimes refered to as a shapka. However, this usage is not specific to the Ushanka, but is rather a Russian language word meaning simply "hat". Ushanka literally translates as "ear-flaps hat".
Ushanka hat is well known to everybody who has experienced freezing cold.