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1.
A colloquial term used to describe people who stir up trouble, whether because of a legitimate grievance or simply because they are trolling. Specifically this term is used when someone posts a single item that plays to peoples passions so much that in its wake a massive discussion occurs, and controversy can still linger years later.
Jesus, that guy who blurted out he fucked your sister at Thanksgiving was a real bomb thrower.
by Aleksei Cortez August 08, 2009
 
2.
The first two are wrong.

Bomb thrower originally entered the English language in the late 19th century to describe the actions of the Anarchists and Nihilists. Usually from a Russian/East Europena background, they were trying to overthrow the Tsarist state.

Because many of these revolutinaries were active in London at that time, and because of publicity like the assasination of Tsar Alexander II, the term bomb throwers became synonymous with anarchist/nihilist revolutionaries
The anarchist bomb throwers blew up the Tsar's carriage in 1881 and killed him
by Kalashkova January 29, 2010
 
3.
Originally, a term to describe a Catholic participant of the conflict in Northern Ireland. Could now be expanded to include individuals with radical and uncompromising religious views who are quite happy to throw incendary devices at innocent civilians and infidels. Recent examples have occured in Spain, the UK, Sri Lanka and Iraq.
The guy who killed those people on the bus was a bomb thrower.
by Busted Hyman July 05, 2006