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A test devised by Alan M. Turing (1912-1954) in the 1950s intended to determine machine intelligence.

The setup of the test is this:
The interrogator, a human, is in a room separate from the machine being tested and another human. The interrogator questions both the machine and the human via a keyboard, and tries to discern which is the machine and which is human.

A computer that can pass the Turing test (that is, be indistinguishable from the human), is considered to have intelligence.
"I passed the Turing test, which shouldn't be that difficult anymore, because Smarterchild is almost there, and humans are getting dumber by the second..."
by Renee February 25, 2004