A non-Euclidean geometry is any geometry that contrasts the fundamental ideas of Euclidean geometry, especially with the nature of parallel lines. Any geometry that does not assume the parallel postulate or any of its alternatives is an absolute geometry (Euclid's own geometry, which does not use the parallel postulate until Proposition 28, can be called a neutral geometry). The first non-Euclidean geometries arose in the exploration of disputing Euclid's notorious Fifth Postulate, which states that if a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, then the two straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which are the angles less than two right angles. Critics of the "parallel postulate" do not argue that it is a mathematical fact. Instead, they do not find it as brief, simple, and self-evident as postulates are supposed to be. Furthermore, the converse of the parallel postulate, corresponding to Proposition 27, Book I, of Euclid's Elements, has a proof, which fueled the argument that the parallel postulate should be a theorem.more...
Many logically equivalent statements include, but are not limited to:
1. Through a given point not on a given line, only one parallel can be drawn to the given line. (Playfair's Axiom)
2. A line that intersects one of two parallel lines intersects the other also.
3. There exists lines that are everywhere equidistant from one another.
4. The sum of the an...