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1.
A side story or a spinoff of of a published work. It is not considered as a prequel or a sequel. Some gaidens are just stories retold from another character's perspective, or a flashback.
In a gaiden of Dragon Knights, by Mineko Ohkami, Rune has a nightmare of everyone becoming crossdressers.
by Miyaviya July 29, 2008
 
2.
Japanese. Means a compilation or collection.
Final Fantasy IX is sometimes called a gaiden by its fans because it borrows a lot from older Final Fantasies.
by Barb November 13, 2004