A technology that is useful for creating high-intensity, coherent, unidirectional light.
It works like this: Atoms of a particular material are excited (given energy) by various means (usually by applying a current); when more atoms in this material are 'excited' than 'stable' a light beam is passed through the material which causes the 'excited' atoms to revert back to their 'stable' state (sometimes in stages); this stimulates the emission of additional light; the process is repeated until the light beam is amplified to the desired energy, at which stage it leaves the system.
To understand how a laser works you need to learn quantum mechanics and atomic and nuclear physics.
Economics is about creating good outcomes for human beings.
Economics isn't meant to explain everything, but it is good for establishing parameters, distinguishing relationships, identifying issues, clarifying options and providing an analytical framework.
Economics can establish criteria by which governmental decisions can be made.