1. Expression of defiance - similar to other laconic sayings in history, such as Leonidas' "Molon labe". Essentially, declaring unrepentant devotion to values by which one lived, or, at least, a refusal to die in a cowardly or ignominious fashion.
2. Ironic inversion of the above - jokey way of declaring submission, often in an aside to bystanders.
Attributed to Flight Lieutenant William Ellis Newton, RAAF, executed by the Imperial Japanese Army 1943 at Salamaua, Papua New Guinea
2. Jack (to witnesses, just before being arrested for public drunkenness): Tell 'em I died game!