(SHOH-guh-nate) The government of medieval Japan in which the Shogun, a military and civil regent, served as the actual leader, while the emperor was the symbolic head of the state and religion. There were three shogunates throughout Japanese history - 1) the Kamakura Shogunate (1192–1333), 2) the Ashikaga Shogunate (1336–1573), and 3) the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603–1868).
Governor → Government
Shogun → Shogunate
Caliph → Caliphate
Sultan → Sultanate
Sakura is indigenous to many Asian states including: China, India, Japan, and Korea.
Rights attached to parcels of land (shoen) in Japan.
Shiki is pronounced SHEE-kee.
First known novel in Asian, if not world, history.
The Tale of Genji was authored by a female courtier. The tale is about life in the Japanese medieval court.
A sock with a separation for the big toe; worn with thong sandals by the Japanese.
Tabi are traditional Japanese socks.
Though not a primary weapon of the Ninja, nunchakus (also known as "nunchucks") were used because they could be adapted for many situations. Aside from being easy to carry, the nunchakus were used to defend against most any weapon from a bo to a sword. By trapping the blade of a sword with the chain between the two sticks, a Ninja could entangle and disarm a sword-weilding attacker.
The same concept applies to almost every other weapon. The nunchakus were not just used for defense, they could also be effectively employed against an enemy in an offensive way. The Ninja could strangle an opponent or even execute joint locks with the chain or cord between the two sticks.
Straw matting used as a floor covering especially in a Japanese house.
Tatami mats are woven straw mats closely associated with Japanese culture, where they have been an enduring feature for centuries. The densely woven mats are traditionally used as a floor covering, and a number of traditions surround their use. The classic size of a tatami mat is three by six feet (one by two meters), although a wide assortment of shapes and sizes are available in addition to custom mats. This standard size is often used as a room measurement, much as square footage is used in many parts of the West. Thus, one may hear a room described as “four and a half mats.” Many Japanese import stores stock tatami mats, and they can also be ordered directly. The early roots of tatami mats were probably simple rushes strewn on the floors of rooms to keep them more dry and clean. Gradually, rushes were replaced with woven mats, which evolved an inner layer of stuffing such as straw or rice bran. Tatami mats are traditionally edged in fabric such as brocade to keep the layers together. Today, the filling for tatami mats is often a synthetic material, designed to resist wear.