The study of the past. 'History' is often used to mean 'historical knowledge' when in reality 'history' is the process of researching the past using the available evidence, cross referencing and establishing 'historical knowledge'.
Historians argue about whose interpretation is most valid. These debates often last decades and are only resolved when either one side's research is shown to be of poor quality, or when new evidence comes to light proving one interpretation more valid.
Postmodernists argue that history is rubbish because they reckon that it impossible to understand al the motivations of the creator of the surce material which 'history' uses to forge historical knowledge. They're wrong.
History: Hey, guys, i went though the archives and cross reference the kings accounts with his requests for money from Parliament.
Hitorical Knowledge: Hitler intended for WW2 to start, but not in 1939. His foriegn policy was ideologically driven.
In foreign relations, the policy of mainting equal distance from the policies of other nations.
This can be to avoid conflict or to gain an advantage in terms of concessions from other nations in return for your support.
Italy maintained a policy of equidistance from 1933 to 1936 by cooperating with Britain and France while tolerating German revisionism of the Treaty of Versailles committing to neither blocs interests.