The mainly European political movement started by Austrian journalist Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) who concluded that the only way to end Jewish suffering was to create a home in Palestine (then with a population of about 500,000).
Lasting from the first Zionist congress in the Swiss city of Basle in 1879 to 1948 with the official creation of the state of Israel.
After covering the Dreyfus affair and witnessing anti-Semitism in France he wrote Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) and then Altneuland (The Old New Land). They outline his philosophy and reasoning behind wanting to create a national home for the Jews. Both of these texts are free to download online.
How can we end anti-Semitism?
We need to bring the Jews back to Zion. We'll call the movement Zionism.