# 12 definitions by Jai Shri Ram

## chloroform

Chloroform is chemically called Trichloro methane. It is carcinogenic if inhaled in excessive amounts and hence is not widely used on humans. It is used as an anesthetic mainly in pharma laboratories on mice.
Chloroform formula - CHCl3

Chloroform structure:

Cl
|
CH-Cl
|
Cl
by Jai Shri Ram May 30, 2005
Get the chloroform mug.

## Indian Army

Brave men who defend India. The 1.3 million strong Indian army is the third largest force in the world after China and USA.

The Indian Army strength at the beginning of the First World War was 155,423. It ended the war with 573,484 men defending the British empire.

During the Second World War the Indian Army had 189,000 men in 1939 who fought for Britain rising to 2,644,323 at peak strength in 1945.

After independence from Britain, Indian army was involved in these wars:

1.Kashmir in 1948 - came out victorious at several places in Kashmir and drove Pakistani invaders out until ceasefire was declared.

2.China in 1962 - lost to Chinese might and China voluntarily withdrew after taking some part of Kashmir.

3.Pakistan in 1965 - defeated Pakistani army, entered West Punjab and occupied Lahore.

4.Pakistan in 1971 - defeated Pakistan and captured over 90,000 Pakistani soldiers. They were released only when Pakistan agreed to the creation of Bangladesh.

5.Kashmir in 1999 - won through shelling Pakistani intruders by use of Bofors field guns. Pakistan withdrew after US intervention.
Indian army is twice the size of Pakistan army and has never lost to them.
by Jai Shri Ram May 29, 2005
Get the Indian Army mug.

## ohm

The standard unit of resistance offered to current flow by a conductor, used in electricity calculations.

Also see Ohm`s law.
For copper wire resistance is 2-100 ohms, but for a piece of wood it is over 1000 ohms.
by Jai Shri Ram May 30, 2005
Get the ohm mug.

## pythagoras theorem

Using Pythagoras Theorem, the third side of a right-angled triangle can be calculated when two sides are given.

Suppose A = length of hypotenuse and
B & C = lengths of the sides containing the right angle

Then (A^2) = (B^2)+(C^2)

Proof:

If a = angle opposite side A ( =90 degrees)

b = angle opposite side B

c = angle opposite side C

then B = A sin a and C = A cos a

Squaring and adding,we get the result.
Pythagorean triplets:

3,4,5

5,12,13

8,15,17
by Jai Shri Ram May 20, 2005
Get the pythagoras theorem mug.

## ohm`s law

For an electrical conductor, by Ohm`s law:

If V = Voltage across its ends ,
R= resistance offered to current flow
and I = Current flowing through it , then

1. V is directly proportional to I.

2. The ratio V/I is constant and equal to R.
If I = 2 Amperes and V = 20 volts then
R = 20/2 = 10 ohms.
by Jai Shri Ram May 30, 2005
Get the ohm`s law mug.

## Kashmir

"If there is paradise anywhere on earth, then it`s here", someone said of Kashmir.

A region of great strategic importance in South Asia, Kashmir is situated just below the former USSR , bordering Pakistan, India, China and Afghanistan.

It falls under India`s Himalayan mountain range. The second biggest peak after Mt. Everest, K2 , is in Chinese held Kashmir. The highest battle ground in the world Siachen glacier is in Indian held Kashmir.

Major religions are Islam,Budhism and Hinduism, although because of years of millitancy, Hindus have been leaving to India.

Kashmir is also the biggest source of conflict between India and Pakistan. Three of the four major India-Pakistan wars were fought over Kashmir in 1948,1965 and recently in 1999. See Pakistani Military Victories.

History: Kashmir in the Vedic period was ruled by Hindus. They developed beautiful temples while governing the state. The presence of Dal lake establishes the fact that agriculture too was a priority during the Hindu period. Till the 12th century Kashmir was ruled by seperate Hindu and Budhist kings before Muslim invasions began.

In the beginning of the 13th century, Muslim Pathans from Afghanistan conquered Kashmir. The new rulers gave Kashmiris three options - convert,die or leave. Those who did not convert or leave were brutally tortured and killed.

In 1587 Kashmir was merged into the Muslim Mughal empire and it became their hill station for the next two centuries.
At the same time Sikhism was born in Punjab.

In 1819 Sikhs freed Kashmir from Muslim rule. Sikh rule didn`t last long due to the British expanding their empire. In 1846 the first Anglo-Sikh war ended with the English emerging victorious.

Through the peace treaty of 9 March 1846 the Sikhs were compelled to pay a war indemnity amounting to 1.5 million sterling to the British. The Sikhs were unable to pay it fully and ceded in lieu thereof the hill territories between the Beas and the Indus rivers. A week later, on 16 March, another treaty was signed recognizing Sikhs as the new rulers of the newly formed Jammu and Kashmir.Sikh rule continued till the end of world war II.

However, outside Sikh territories, Muslims wanted special rights on religious basis under Jinnah`s leadership. Their initial demands for seperate voting rights slowly became demands for a seperate nation,Pakistan.

In August 1947, India was partitioned. Its muslim majority areas - West Punjab, Sindh, Frontier province ,Balochistan and East Bengal joined Pakistan. Pakistan`s map included Kashmir because of its Muslim majority, though the rulers were not Muslim.

Kashmir despite being Muslim-majority did not join Pakistan. Neither did it join India. It wanted to stay free, just like Nepal.

On 22 october 1947, Pakistan sent hundreds of tribesmen to forcefully occupy Kashmir.Kashmir had its own army but its Muslim soldiers fled and joined the tribesmen.In 1947 over half a million Hindus and Sikhs were killed in Pakistan`s Punjab riots. More than five million Hindus and Sikhs were forced to leave their homes behind and move to India. Fearing the worse at the hands of pakistani tribesmen , the King sought Indian military assistance. Indian government agreed to send in troops only if Kashmir accepted to be part of Indian dominion.

The King agreed to merge with India and troops were sent to drive out the infiltrators. The matter went into the newly constituted UN and a ceasefire was declared with Pakistan and India controlled areas staying with the respective countries.

Post 1948 Kashmir progressed as an attractive tourist destination and the largest saffron producing state in India. 1990 onwards both its tourist and saffron images have been ruined by the seperatist movement. Today Kashmir depends on India for its economic survival.

In 1999, Pakistan again sent tribesmen to occupy regions in Indian held Kashmir. India used Mirage fighter planes and Bofors field guns to pound and drive them out.

During the 2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan, both nuclear giants came very close to an all-out war. But since then India and Pakistan have made steady progress on improving bilateral relations and a peaceful solution to Kashmir is expected.

What is the Kashmir dispute?

Pakistan claims it because it is Muslim majority. Pakistan`s argument in this regard is the two-nation theory, according to which there are two nations within india,one Hindu nation and the other Muslim nation.

India claims it because Kashmir chose to merge with India when Pakistan attacked it in 1948. India`s argument is that wherever Muslims are in majority they have driven Hindus out. If India is partitioned on religious basis like 1947 once again, where will Hindus go if Muslims become majority in other Indian states and start a Kashmir like power struggle.
Since 1990 Kashmiri seperatist movement has claimed over 50,000 lives. Over 300,000 Kashmiri Hindus have left their homes and today they have become refugees in their own land.
by Jai Shri Ram May 28, 2005
Get the Kashmir mug.

## sanskrit

The mother of all present-day european languages. Originated in India.

Indo-European Language Subfamilies:

* Indo-Iranian (Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Persian)
* Hellenic (Greek)
* Armenian (Western Armenian, Eastern Armenian)
* Balto-Slavic (Russian, Polish, Czech, Lithuanian)
* Albanian (Gheg, Tosk)
* Celtic (Irish Gaelic, Welsh)
* Italic (Latin, Spanish, Italian, French)
* Germanic (German, English, Danish, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian)
* Anatolian (extinct) (Hittite)
* Tocharian (extinct) (Tocharian A, Tocharian B)

Language Similarities:

* Indo-European voiceless stops (p, t, k) became Germanic voiceless fricatives (f, th, h):

o Indo-European pœter, Germanic (English) father (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin pater)

o Indo-European treyes, Germanic (English) three (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin tres)

o Indo-European kerd, Germanic (English) heart, (compare with non-Germanic: Latin cord)

* Indo-European voiced stops (b, d, g) became Germanic voiceless stops (p, t, k):

o Indo-European abel, Germanic (English) apple (contrast with non-Germanic: Russian jabloko)

o Indo-European dent, Germanic (English) tooth (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin dentis)

o Indo-European grœno, Germanic (English) corn (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin granum)

* voiced aspirated stops(bh, dh, gh) to voiced stops (b, d, g):

o Indo-European bhrater, Germanic (English) brother (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin frater)
Maater in Sanskrit = Mutter in German = Mother in English.

Pitar in Sanskrit = Vater in German = Father in English.
by Jai Shri Ram April 26, 2005
Get the sanskrit mug.