It is Latin (not Spanish!) for "The Law of Retaliation", which is to say, "The punishment should fit the crime". It's oldest expression is in Exodus 21:24, Leviticus 24:20, Deuteronomy 19:21, and was given as a principle for the administration if civil law in Israel around 3500 years ago.
He took the life of an innocent girl, and therefore must forfeit his own life according to the principle of Lex Talionis.
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