On domestic issues, Neocons say they are for limited government, free market solutions and things like that. However, when non-interventionist tactics do not yield the result they want, they have no qualms about using government power to garner the desired result.
For foreign policy issues, they tend to refrain from using diplomacy. Neocons tend to participate in nation-building in the attempt to set up desired governments in other countries. They claim to support liberal democracies and human rights abroad but generally are more than willing to abandon this goal if it won't create the desired effect. Neocons usually want to use massive military force to solve most international issues despite the fact that very few of them have ever served.
Neocons see the world in binary, good vs evil and us vs them, terms. They are generally upper middle and upper class white people with college educations (ie the stereotypical WASP) but there is also a strong neocon segment among poor whites with little education (ie the stereotypical redneck). Tending to be socially conservative, they often belong to evangelical Protestant Christian churches and claim to have strong moral values. They love the status-quo.
The most famous neocon is George W Bush
Some bommer baby "intellectual" who sleazed himself out of serving in Vietnam, but 30 years later is way too eager to send somebody else to war. They have two other distinguishing charicteristics.
1) When they start trouble they call it "pre-emptive strike. When the sand niggers do thje same thing they call it "jihad."
2) Even tghough they were too yell themselves to go to Vietnam, they have the balls to call Vietnam vets who question them (like john Kerry) "traitors"
“Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.” –The Constitution
The Iraqi general public are enemies (and hate Americans so much they want us to die in a fire - polls show more than 85% of Iraqis supported the 9/11 attacks). Giving aid and comfort to enemies constitutes treason as clearly defined by the Constitution. Without exaggeration, neocons, that believe in theft of American livelihoods, and the subsequent spending of said earnings on elections, public services, building schools etc. for our enemies (the Iraqis), are traitors and should be executed as such.
Other powerful factions of the Republican party are the Evangelical Protestants, and the Libertarians.
Economically, Neoconservatives believe in fair trade and free market economy, so they support NAFTA. Neoconservatives are very powerful, and have a lot of influence in the White House. A lot of political think tanks are Neoconservative. For further details, see the wikipedia article on neoconservative.
Not to be confused with paleoconservatives, who are Nazis in disguise.