Dizi -China, Transverse
Shakuhachi -Japan, End-blown
Kena -Ande's region, End-blown
Bansuri -India, Transverse
A flutes range varies on the experience of the person playing it.
A flute is concert pitch, which means you don't have to transpose
Anyway flutes are generally made out of metal (silver, nickel, gold, platinum, alloys, etc) although Baroque flutes are often made out of wood. Flutes can play lower than most people expect.
Did I mention it's prettyful?
Females AND males can play it. And yes, straight males. Some of the best floutists are STRAIGHT males.
So stop hatin on us, 'cause you're just jealous. At least we're not obnoxious like damn trumpeteers.