1. A fundamental naiveté or outright misunderstanding of chemistry on the part of the would be Zohnerite.
2. A deliberate misrepresentation of the chemical properties of the substance in question by referring to them by their technical names, or the referencing of names of their constituents; or the pretense that some constituent of the substance has the same properties in the substance mixture as it has in its purified form.
3. The inclusion of putatively supporting examples that are clearly impossible on their face, except that their true nature is obfuscated by technical jargon, or the use of metric units.
The above second point is usually deliberately exacerbated by the creation of a website with an authoritative-sounding name which purports to be the authority on the subject, but is in reality simply a sham created by the hoaxer.