"Röntgen Thinking" or "X-Ray Thinking", basically refers to thinking -- with the capacity to look into depths or hidden realities -- of an issue, event, or concept....or anything else for that matter, that can be thought about.
In simple words, people who think in a very shallow, lame or silly way, and think that they've understood things the superficial way, such as taking info off an untrusted or silly source, that too (generally) in little doses, when their ass is way too dumb to understand things for what they are.
Sam : No, what about them ?
Jim : Well, they're only 'identical' looks-wise! While Terence, who goes the Rontgen Thinking way, needs to take one look at any politician to understand what he really is, having known their history, backgrounds, past and everything else, all his twin brother Philip does is believe every political advertisement he sees and fart in approval! He's so lame, really.