A Roman emperor (63 BCE to 14 CE), winner of the civil war that ensued after the death of Julius Caesar. The month of August gets its name from Augustus. He was a patron of the arts, and despite his bloody ways his reign is often seen as commencing golden age in Rome.
A male homosexual. The term was coined after Augustus Gloop, a character in Charlie and the chocolate factory. In the movie, Augustus fell in the chocolate river and went up the chocolate pipe...hence the male homosexual association.