A socialist theory advocated by Karl Marx in which the proletariat (working class) tried to attain rights, and fair wages. By abolishing bourgeois (middle class business owners) property the proletariat hoped for equality.
During the Industrial Revolution the proletariat (lower class) were forced to switch from the work they were used to doing, agriculture and farming, to working in factories for the bourgeois (middle class busines owners). They worked sometimes 16-18 hour days and didn't even get paid enough to live. (Which is why from 8 years old and up children were dropping out of school to work full time in the hopes their family wouldn't starve that day. Although kids often got paid 1/10 of what an adult did.) As machines were getting easier to use more people had the skills necessary (none...) to work. Because of this the number of proletariat continued to increase and so the laws made for/by the bourgeois didn't apply to the lower class which was by far, the majority. Karl Marx had a theory and this theory was communism. Marx belief was that by abolishing bourgeois property it would level out the playing field so the proletariat had the chance to prosper, and be functioning members of society.