Nonbinary refers to any gender that is not exclusively male or female. A similar term is genderqueer.
Some common nonbinary gender identities include: agender, bigender, genderfluid, androgyne, and neutrois.
It is usually considered to be under the transgender umbrella, and some nonbinary people will also identify as trans.
Fallon: You're not a girl or a boy, are you?
Skylar: Nope, I'm not! I'm nonbinary.
A spoonie is someone living with a chronic illness.
It mostly refers to physical chronic illnesses, though it has been known to be a helpful term for those with chronic mental illness as well.
It originates from Christine Miserandino's Spoon Theory story, in which she explains what it's like to live with chronic illness to a friend, and uses a handful of spoons to demonstrate.
For example, daily activities that healthy people tend not to think about take tolls on people with chronic illness. You start the day with a certain number of spoons, and play your day around not running out. Socializing might cost spoons, using the stairs might cost spoons, lifting things might cost spoons, etc.
Skylar: It's a low spoons day today, I don't think I'll go out.
Fallon: You're a spoonie? I didn't know. Well, I hope you feel better tomorrow. Can I do anything for you?
Dysphoria is an experience trans, genderqueer, and non-binary people have. It describes discomfort, loathing, anxiety, and depression revolving around one's social gender role and/or physical sex characteristics. It's a very serious experience that leads to larger anxiety/depression problems, depersonalization, thoughts of suicide, social withdrawal, self harm, etc.
Fallon: Where were you last night? We missed you at the party.
Skylar: Sorry. I had a serious bout of dysphoria and couldn't bring myself to go.
Fallon: Oh, I understand. You didn't miss much, anyway.
Genderqueer people are people whose gender is not exclusively male or female. A similar term is nonbinary.
While genderqueer could be an identity of itself, some common genders that fall under the genderqueer umbrella are: agender, bigender, genderfluid, androgyne, ambigender, and neutrois.
Genderqueer is usually seen as falling under the trans umbrella, and some genderqueer people will call themselves trans.
Fallon: You're mtf, right?
Skylar: No, I'm actually genderqueer.
Pansexuality is the attraction to all genders.
This is not to be confused with bisexuality, which is the attraction to any combination of at least two genders (men & women, men & women &enby people, enby people & women, etc).
Pansexuals often identify as pan because it explicitly states all genders, whereas bisexuality could mean a number of things to each individual.
Some people call themselves both pansexual and bisexual.
Skylar: I saw Jenny the other day. I want to be with her so much. Do you think she'd be into me? I'm genderqueer...
Fallon: She's pansexual! She could still be into you.
Skylar: Really?! Yay!