12 definitions by jai shri ram

Hinduism is the most ancient religion in the world. At present it is the third largest religion in the world with nearly 900 million followers where 850 million live in India. It originated 3000 years ago at the banks of river Indus( now sadly in Pakistan ) with the creation of sacred Vedic texts , the major language is Sanskrit( mother of all present day european languages ). It is a way of living more than a religion. The many forms of Hinduism are henotheistic religions. They recognize a single deity, and view other Gods and Goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that supreme God. Henotheistic and polytheistic religions have traditionally been among the world's most religiously tolerant faiths. Hindus are divided into four groups, namely the brahmins(priests), kshatriyas(warriors), vaishyas(traders) and harijans(workers). India was(and still is) the land of hindus, there is no other country which we can call our own.
India was ruled by Muslims for 1000 years and then christians(British) for 200 years, even then Hinduism existed, thanks to the warrior clans of sikhs,marathas and rajputs. We have never tried to convert other people by force, bribe or lure, although fresh converts are welcome. The sacred texts of Hinduism are Bhagwad Gita( the word of Lord Krishna ),Ramayana( the legend of Prince Ram ), Mahabharata( the second longest epic in the world,it describes the biggest ever war in India,fought at Kurukshetra,and the lessons to learn from it) and the Vedas ( the principles of Hindu living). Major festivals are Diwali(the festival of lights, it celebrates the homecoming of Prince Ram), Dussehra( celebrated as the victory of good over evil), Holi(festival of colours), Ram Navami(birth of Prince Ram), Shiv Ratri(birth of Lord Shiva) etc.
I am Hindu,and proud of my identity.
by Jai Shri Ram April 25, 2005
A dream that will never come true.

India-Pakistan Wars:

1948-India freed Srinagar from Paki occupation and several areas close to the line of control in Kashmir before ceasefire was declared.

1965-India successfully routed Pakis by crossing the international border at Punjab and occupied Lahore.

1971-India helped East Pakistan gain independence from the oppressive West Pakistan.A new nation for Bengali muslims called Bangladesh was created.

1999-India launched airstrikes and artillery shelling to successfully drive out Paki millitants from the line of control in Indian-held Kashmir.
I have no idea why Pakistan is getting F-16s?
by Jai Shri Ram April 26, 2005
The mother of all present-day european languages. Originated in India.

Indo-European Language Subfamilies:

* Indo-Iranian (Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Persian)
* Hellenic (Greek)
* Armenian (Western Armenian, Eastern Armenian)
* Balto-Slavic (Russian, Polish, Czech, Lithuanian)
* Albanian (Gheg, Tosk)
* Celtic (Irish Gaelic, Welsh)
* Italic (Latin, Spanish, Italian, French)
* Germanic (German, English, Danish, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian)
* Anatolian (extinct) (Hittite)
* Tocharian (extinct) (Tocharian A, Tocharian B)

Language Similarities:

* Indo-European voiceless stops (p, t, k) became Germanic voiceless fricatives (f, th, h):

o Indo-European pœter, Germanic (English) father (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin pater)

o Indo-European treyes, Germanic (English) three (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin tres)

o Indo-European kerd, Germanic (English) heart, (compare with non-Germanic: Latin cord)

* Indo-European voiced stops (b, d, g) became Germanic voiceless stops (p, t, k):

o Indo-European abel, Germanic (English) apple (contrast with non-Germanic: Russian jabloko)

o Indo-European dent, Germanic (English) tooth (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin dentis)

o Indo-European grœno, Germanic (English) corn (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin granum)

* voiced aspirated stops(bh, dh, gh) to voiced stops (b, d, g):

o Indo-European bhrater, Germanic (English) brother (contrast with non-Germanic: Latin frater)
Maater in Sanskrit = Mutter in German = Mother in English.

Pitar in Sanskrit = Vater in German = Father in English.
by Jai Shri Ram April 26, 2005
tnt
1. Popularly known as Tri Nitro Toluene.

2. Standard chemical name is 1-Methyl-2,4,6 - Trinitro Benzene.

3. Releases tremendous amounts of energy in the form of heat when ignited ,hence used as an explosive.
TNT Formula -

H3C-C6H2(NO2)3
by Jai Shri Ram June 18, 2005
Brave men who defend India. The 1.3 million strong Indian army is the third largest force in the world after China and USA.

The Indian Army strength at the beginning of the First World War was 155,423. It ended the war with 573,484 men defending the British empire.

During the Second World War the Indian Army had 189,000 men in 1939 who fought for Britain rising to 2,644,323 at peak strength in 1945.

After independence from Britain, Indian army was involved in these wars:

1.Kashmir in 1948 - came out victorious at several places in Kashmir and drove Pakistani invaders out until ceasefire was declared.

2.China in 1962 - lost to Chinese might and China voluntarily withdrew after taking some part of Kashmir.

3.Pakistan in 1965 - defeated Pakistani army, entered West Punjab and occupied Lahore.

4.Pakistan in 1971 - defeated Pakistan and captured over 90,000 Pakistani soldiers. They were released only when Pakistan agreed to the creation of Bangladesh.

5.Kashmir in 1999 - won through shelling Pakistani intruders by use of Bofors field guns. Pakistan withdrew after US intervention.
Indian army is twice the size of Pakistan army and has never lost to them.
by Jai Shri Ram May 29, 2005
Enterprise and endeavour, these two words symbolize the essential spirit of the people of Punjab.

Punjab is a state in the Indian sub-continent where five rivers namely Satluj,Ravi,Jhelum,Chenab and Bias,meet.

Punjab is the richest state in India with the highest per capita income, a big number of Indian immigrants come from Punjab. Punjab is also the agricultural hub of India. It is the state where the "Green Revolution" (production of surplus wheat) began.
Providing the impetus for the "White revolution", it was Punjab that recorded the highest per capita availability of milk. Its average growth rate of 10% is amongst the highest in the country, clearly reflecting the progressive economy of the state.

Punjab is home to Sikhs,the bravest people in India. The Sikh Golden Temple located in Amritsar has more tourist visits than the Taj Mahal. Punjabi music and bhangra is popular in India and abroad among the sub-continental people.

Life in Punjab began with the Harappan civilisation. This culture existed along the Punjab state (in present day Pakistan). It was named after the city of Harappa which it was centered around. This city is well known for its impressive, organized and regular layout. Over one hundred other towns and villages also existed in this region. The Harappan people were literate and used the Dravidian language.

The presence of five rivers and the fertile land invited invasions. The first alien settlers in Punjab were fair-skinned Aryans who came from Central Asia , Tibet and parts of Russia.

Punjab was originally given the name Paanchaal by Aryans. During the Ramayana period , Punjab was where the sons of Prince Ram , Luv and Kusha were born. The cities of Lahore (Luv Pore) and Kasur (Kush Pore) were named after them.
During the the Mahabharata period, Punjab or Paanchaal was the state Draupadi,the Pandava(the five brothers) wife came from. Hence the name Paanchaali.

The oldest scriptures in all of India and the most important are called the vedas. All Hindus recognize the Vedas as the true origin of their faith because of the spiritual meaning behind them. The scriptures served as a base for inner searching among the Indo-Aryan people as they were composed by seers or ancient prophets while in a state of inspiration.

There are four Vedas: Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. Each is divided into two groups: works and knowledge. The first is made of hymns and instructions regarding rights, ceremonies and rules of conduct. The latter is concerned with knowledge of who god is.

The Vedas form the basis of Hinduism and the caste system. Punjab was the place where Vedas were created by the Aryans after they invaded and settled in the Indus valley. These Vedas were passed on orally for many generations. They were first written in Vedic, an early form of Sanskrit. Then around 300 B.C. the Vedas were written down in Sanskrit the form we have them in today.

The religion that sprang forth from the Vedas helped shape Indian society. The Veda describes how the god sacrificed himself to himself. Each of the pieces of his body developed into a different portion of society. His mouth became the Brahmin or priests; his arms became the Kshatriyas or warriors; his thighs became the Vaisya or merchants, farmers, herders and artisans; and the feet became the Harijana or slaves and servants. Thus, while each part of society had its own role, it was still and single body.

The birth of Islam and occupation of Sindh threatened Punjab as well due to its geographical proximity to modern day Afghanistan. Muslim rulers attacked seventeen times but failed. They however didn`t fail the eighteenth chance and Punjab came under Islamic rule.

The first centre of Islamic existence was established at Multan. For the locals, Muslim rule meant abandoning their original faith and culture or they faced punishment according to Islamic laws. Many refused to convert and were killed or mercilessly tortured.

This went on unabated until the birth of Sikhism , a religion that initially rose above the blind religious practices of Hindus and Muslims, disapproved the caste system , proposed the existence of a single God but later on became a fighting force to deal with the oppressive Muslim rule. Had it not been for Sikh`s efforts, entire north India would have become Pakistan.

After the fall of Muslims in Punjab, Sikhs tried to re-establish themselves in the Muslim-majority Punjab but were successfully defeated by the British and the state came under direct British rule.

Punjab contributed the most brave men towards freedom struggle. The Arya Samaj,a Hindu reformist movement that disapproved of idol worship and the caste system ,originated and grew popular in Punjab.

Punjab`s contribution to Colonial British forces during the first and second world war was significant. Many fought against the Japanese at Singapore and Burma alongside Gurkhas.

The partition of India divided this state. Muslim-majority areas including capital Lahore went to Pakistan. Over 5 million Pakistani Punjab`s Hindus and Sikhs were forced to abandon their homes and move to India. Rest were killed in riots.

1947 onwards the state has seen a movement demanding a seperate Sikh state , a military campaign to flush out Sikh millitants from the Golden Temple and a dead prime minister but nevertheless economic progress has been outstanding, compared to other Indian states.
I am from Punjab.

Punjab is famous because of:

1. Sikhism
2. Folk music
3. Bhangra dance
4. Awesome food
5. Economic Progress(in India)
6. Its hardworking community
by Jai Shri Ram May 03, 2005
Chloroform is chemically called Trichloro methane. It is carcinogenic if inhaled in excessive amounts and hence is not widely used on humans. It is used as an anesthetic mainly in pharma laboratories on mice.
Chloroform formula - CHCl3

Chloroform structure:

Cl
|
CH-Cl
|
Cl
by Jai Shri Ram May 30, 2005

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