Arsham is an Iranian-Persian Masculine name.
Meaning: Very powerful, Strong
Anciant: Arsames or Arshama
Arschama I., the son of Ariaramnes, father of Hystaspes und grandfather of Dareios' I. Lived about 550 BCE.
He was the son of Ariaramnes and the king of Persia during the Achaemenid dynasty, but gave up the throne and declared loyalty to Cyrus II of Persia. After this, Arsames most likely retired to his family estate in the Persian heartland of Parsa, and lived out the rest of his long years there peacefully, though he may nominally have exercised the duties of a "lesser king" under the authority of the "Great King". In an inscription found in Hamadan (Iran) he is called "king of Persia".
Another attestation of his reign is the Behistun Inscription, where his grandson Darius I states that eight Achaemenid kings preceded him - and then, he must be counting Arsames as a king.
Arsames was father of Hystaspes, satrap of Parthia, and of Pharnaces. Arsames would live to see his grandson, Darius I, become the Great King of the Persian Empire, though he would die during his reign. In any case, he must have been one of the longest-surviving royals anywhere in the world at that time, probably living well into his nineties.