192 definitions by abu yahya

the net purchase of financial assets in a country by foreigners. Put another way, the capital account balance is the net influx of money from overseas investors. It includes net purchases of domestic financial assets by foreigners minus net purchases of foreign financial assets by domestic citizens.

The capital account balance over short periods of time (e.g., a fortnight) is extremely volatile; over a period of a year, however, it usually offsets the current account balance. For example, in all years since 1980, the USA has run a large-to-huge current account deficit, but in most years it has run a capital account surplus that is almost as big as the current account deficit.
The capital account balance often permits a huge trade deficit to persist over several decades without a significant fall in the exchange rate of a nation's currency.
by Abu Yahya February 14, 2009
(ECONOMICS) a financial institution that issues the national currency and administers monetary policy.

For the USA, the central bank is the Federal Reserve System.

In a few cases, the central bank is private, and otherwise similar to a regular commercial bank. In other cases, it is directly controlled by the head of government. In most cases, however, it is a government agency that is shielded from direct control.

OTHER IMPORTANT CENTRAL BANKS

European Union--European Central Bank (ECB).
Japan--Bank of Japan

China--People's Bank of China
United Kingdom--Bank of England

See also the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for International Settlements.
In the USA, as well as many other countries, the Treasury acts as the government's underwriter but the central bank controls the money supply using treasury securities and other forms of hot money. The central bank is usually responsible for managing the currency reserves, including foreign currency reserves, of its government. It also enforces banking laws and operates check clearing.

The BIS acts as a bank to most of the world's central banks.
by Abu Yahya May 05, 2010
Breathless and/or mendacious "Globalization" pieces from neoliberal commentators. A lot of pop economics insists that increased trade in services, intellectual property, and equities will solve every significant problem.
The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) is always good for a large steaming helping of globollocks.
by Abu Yahya August 03, 2008
(FINANCE) a type of financial derivative which two parties "swap," or exchange, the streams of income (or payments) from two different sources. The actual instrument is created by a third party, such as an investment bank.

The most familiar version of the swap is the interest rate swap, in which the holder of a fixed rate loan and the holder of an adjustable rate loan agree to exchange revenue streams.

The variety of swaps available is massively greater than with options or futures; essentially, swaps exist for every arbitrage opportunity that any combination of markets provides; the market for swaps is huge.
BILL: Why do firms buy swaps? Why don't they just sell the loans they have to other banks, or whatever?

ANNA: One is that swaps are a method of hedging risk; you hold the bond in case the price goes up, but you buy interest rate swaps to protect against having average rates in your portfolio that are two high or two low.
by Abu Yahya April 05, 2010
a graph correlating inflation against unemployment rates. Using a horizontal axis to represent unemployment, and a vertical axis to represent inflation, A.W. Phillips found the rate of inflation and unemployment in Great Britain for every year between 1861 and 1957. When he had plotted the 97 dots on the chart, he had a rather neat hyperbola convex to the origin of the graph.

In other words, if the rate of unemployment was low, the rate of inflation was high, and vice versa. At the time, economists concluded that this was a logical outcome of both being influenced by the rate of interest: if interest rates were low, then unemployment would be low and prices would rise, but if interest rates were high then there would be lots of unemployment and workers would not have much money to spend... so prices would go down.

Unfortunately, when economists tried to design policy around this concept they disrupted the smooth relationship. In the years since the 1960's, there has not been a straightforward relationship, and Keynesian economics has had to be drastically revised to a post-Phillips Curve regime.

There is some correlation between inflation and unemployment, but the correlation is much more complicated than originally thought. It is quite possible to have high unemployment and high inflation (i.e., a high "misery index").
The Phillips Curve implies a trade-off between unemployment and inflation. Unfortunately, this trade-off may sometimes represent more of a Faustian bargain.
by Abu Yahya February 14, 2009
LDC
Less developed country; refers to countries such as Mexico or Egypt, where there is a semi-functional state and plans to stimulate industry, but very limited industrial development (relative to the total labor force).
The World Bank and the IMF are both intensely controversial entities among LDCs.
by abu yahya July 10, 2008
(US GOVERNMENT) Federal Open Market Committee; a committee whose members include the 7 governors of the Federal Reserve Board plus five presidents of the Federal Reverse Banks (there are 12 district banks). The FOMC is responsible for open market operations of the Federal Reserve System.
The FOMC manages purchases and sales of Treasury securities.
by Abu Yahya June 16, 2010

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