Aikido, a modern Japanese martial art (or correct: a martial way = “budo”), is a surrogate or synthesis of ancient budo schools where martial skills (bujutsu) and warfare (heiho) as well as spiritual exercises were taught to the Japanese warriors (samurai). In its unique approach, aikido hands down the essence of Japanese war culture and samurai tradition (bushido). Aikido is still a martial way of training and developing body, mind and spirit, it is still true budo but without being an anachronism to our modern day world. So, the ancient budo principles, methods, and strategies are no longer used to prepare for the medieval battlefields but for self-defense situations, they are no longer methods of warfare but of conflict resolution. Based on its ethical basis, aikido teaches appropriate and peaceful answers to violence and conflict in modern societies.
Ancient form of self-defense, empty-handed or using also a small stick. Mostly part of a comprehensive school of martial skills (bujutsu) and warfare (heiho). The name Yawara was synonymously used for Jujutsu.
In Europe and the US, the name Yawara was also used synonymously for the Jiu-Jitsu practiced from ca. 1900 to the 1960’s (see Jiu-Jitsu).
Mostly a name for modern practical self-defense systems, which are founded after WWII in western countries as a combination of Judo, Karate and Aikido, specialized to use it against modern day attacks. Synonymous words like Jujitsu, Ju-Jitsu or Ju-Jutsu are widely used.
Also name of a combination of western boxing and wrestling with self-defense "tricks", brought from Japan to Europe and the US around 1900 to 1920. In later years often practiced as a companion to judo or as "judo self-defense" until the modern systems were founded. This Jiu-Jitsu often was presented in film, e.g. in the Mr. Moto movies (starring Peter Lorre).
Self-defense arts called Jiu-Jitsu should not be mistaken with ancient Japanese Jujutsu styles, which are traditional, classical bujutsu (martial skills) of the Japanese warriors (samurai) and are in fact koryu (ancient budo). They have not much in common with the Jiu-Jitsu we know.