Peru lays in a land rich in traditions and old civilizations. Over 5,000 years of history tells the lives of peoples like the Chavin, Moche, Nasca, Paracas, Vicus, Wari, Tiawanaku, Quechua (Inka), Chimu, etc. When the Spaniards arrived they found a divided Inka civilization that was easy to conquer due to their religious beliefs that Pizarro was a representative of their Gods. The epidemics, slavery and the Catholic church contributed to the destruction of the Indigenous civilizations of what is Peru today.
During almost 400 years of colonial times as a Viceroyalty, Spain stole the Peruvian gold and goods that built its rich economy transforming from a weak kingdoms to a worldwide empire.
Peru as a country was created in 1821, after the war of "independence" lead by the Argentinian general Jose de San Martin, who declared the birth of a new nation in the main square of Lima. The Spaniards didn't leave Peru until 1824 when the Venezuelan general Simon Bolivar won the Ayacucho battle and expelled them.
Peru today is more than just a touristic destination. It is a society in evolution. Peruvians are a deeply divided society. The extreme gap between the poor and the rich elite, and a vicious racism, have caused decades of social violence influenced by fanatic groups who fought a guerrilla-styled war since the 70's until the 90's.
Peru today is becoming a world-class economy of free trade but that has bot benefit the majority of its population. Its democracy has very weak institutions as most of Latin American countries. The opulation is 26.7 million; 46% of them are Indigenous (Quechua, Aymara, Moche, Amazon peoples, etc), 37% are Mestizo (mixed Indigenous and European) 10% are white, 5% black and 2% Asian and others.
Peru is an unique country, full of contrasts and surprising social and cultural events. Its cusine is one of the best in the world and its rich traditions make it a distinctive place to live and visit. Pisco is the national Peruvian drink made of white grape, and this land is believed to be the birth place of the potato (33 types of it are grown there). People speak mostly Spanish (78%) but Quechua, Aymara, 35 Amazonic dialects and Enlgish are spoken too. Peru's favorite dish is Ceviche, made of raw fish marinated with lime juice, salt, pepper and aji (hot pepper). Peru produces minerals, fish, cotton, fruits, oil, and is the 2nd. gold producer in the world.
Peru's national colors are red and white, its capital is Lima (9 million population) and it has a GPB of US$5,300 per capita.
"Vale un Peru" was a popular saying in the colonial times that is still used in some parts of Latin America.
(it's worth a Peru, its like gold)
"Cholo es vocablo de las islas Barlovento; quiere decir perro, no de los castizos, sino de los muy bellacos gozcones; y los españoles usan dél por infamia y vituperio"
(Extracted from the book "Los comentarios reales del Inca Garcilazo de la Vega" a mestizo writer from Peru, published in 1609 and 1616)
The word CHOLO ia a mixed breed DOG, one of a very bad look. The Spaniards used that word also to call Indigenous people and those mixed with them. You see, the Hispanics were Racist from long time ago, that is why I hate when someone calls me Hispanic.
In Mexico and Southwestern USA (former Mexico) that word is used to describe a Latino man (mostly of Mexican and Central American origin) who is involved on street-gang activities or a street fashioned life-style.
In Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Chile and Colombia the word CHOLO is both an insult and a compliment, but mostly a way to describe a person of Indigenous heritage.
In most of those Andean countries people are Indigenous or mixed with them, especially Quechua, Moche, Aymara, Guarani and other Amazon peoples. Anyone who "looks" or "acts" as an Indigenous person is called a CHOLO by RACIST people who believe they are white/European as supposed to be superior.
Racism in those countries is vicious and virulent, worse than in the US. The elites there have Indigenous people as their servants and they keep them under poverty on purpose. It is very common to insult an Indian just because of their race and make fun of them on public or in TV. It's a very disgusting way of racism that most Andean people would take as a normal expression of their culture, because they aspire to become like their invaders, the Spaniards.
"Ese cholo de mierda es tan indio, no lo dejes entrar a mi casa" ("that fucking cholo, don't let him in")
"Ese tipo se le ve tan cholo" ( "that dude looks very cholo")
"No te vistas asi, pareces un cholo" ("don't wear that, you look like a cholo")
A word used by racist people who are insecure and depressed bout who they are cause they got not cultural identity so they hate the Mexicans because of their rich history, traditions and strong drive to succeed.
"damn I hate the fukin spiks, they got all the white cheeks"