Meaning "The Land of the Morning Calm."
Go-Chosun refers to the Korean Empire founded by Tangun in 2333 B.C. that succeeded the first kingdoms of Hwan Gook (7,197 B.C.) and Bae Dal (3,898 B.C.) (also known as Gu Ri). The people of Go-Chosun were refered to by the Chinese as "the eastern bowmen."
The eastern bowmen on the western coast of the Yellow Sea clashed with the Zhou people during China's period of warring states (475 B.C. - 221 B.C.). This led them to move toward southern Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula. Go-Chosun collapsed in 238 B.C. The territory that the nation managed to keep was located on and above (present day Machuria)the Korean peninsula. Four kingdoms emerged as a result of contrasting ideals. This period is known as the Three Kingdoms (Sam-han) despite the fact that there were four. The most northern kingdom was the largest and most powerful. Their territory began where the Great Wall of China ended, and extended to about what is today's North Korea. It was known as the Kingdom of Goguryeo. There were three kingdoms in the south. Kaya, the smallest, was a Korean-Japanese kingdom that was eventually conquered by Silla (also called Shin rah, or Shilla) which occupied the eastern part of what is now South Korea. Near China, occupying the south-western side of the peninsula, was Baekje. Shilla eventually conquered it's neighboring kingdom, Baekje (fell in 660 A.D.), and then with the help of Tang China it defeated Goguryeo. Goguryeo fell in 668 A.D. Shilla and Tang disputed the territory of Goguryeo, but China eventually gave in to Shilla's claims and Shilla became the ruler of the Korean peninsula.
After the fall of Goguryeo, Tae Cho-yong, a former Goguryeo general, formed an army of the remaining Goguryeo people and led a migration to the Chinese-controlled territory. They settled eventually near Jilin in Manchuria, and there founded a state called Parhae in 713. Parhae occupied part of what is now Manchuria and a small part of Russia in the east. It coexisted with Unified Shilla. In 926 the Khitan, who later came dominated much of Manchuria and northern China, conquered Parhae. At this time, Shilla was overthrown and the Koryo Kingdom was established.
Following this was the Mongol rule. Koryo managed to push the Mongols out, but was overthrown by Yi Songye, a Korean general educated in China. He established the Yi Dynasty and renamed it Chosun. This is considered by many to be a disgrace because Go-Chosun was a great Empire. The state Yi established was not as great. It is also considered a golden age in which Korean script Hangeul was invented, along with many other things. It was prosperous until it was annexed in 1910 by Japan. The last Korean Emperor ruled until 1914 when he was officially removed from office. However, 1910 marks the official end of the New Chosun period.
Chosun was founded by Tangun in 2333 B.C. and means "The Land of the Morning Calm."