To "suck your teeth" at someone is literally the process of sucking your teeth. A sound can be made by clenching your teeth together and then making a sharp sucking motion as if inhaling inhaling ice cream through a straw. The harder you suck the louder the sound. It is usually done out of annoyance at another person.
"Don't suck your teeth at me!" said the angry teacher the the student.
Jeremy rolled his eyes and sucked his teeth at Jerome's bad joke.